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Etymology

Etymology is usually defined as the knowledge about the derivation of words. It could also be described as the study of the original meaning of words. In this section we would like to point out to you words (often bookish words) that also occur in the English language, derived from the Greek. These New Testament words often have the same or similar meanings and can even agree to some extent in pronunciation. This is because both Koinè and English are Indo-European languages. From India to England in many languages words occur that somehow are related to each other, both in meaning and in sound. Please, attempt to learn these words. This cannot be too difficult as they are related to their English equivalents either because they have been derived by scholars directly from the Greek original or (the usual way) they have been imported via the French language.

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ajgaqo"

--'good'; cf. girls' name 'Agatha'

ajggelo"

--'messenger'; cf. 'angel'

ajgkura

--'anchor'

ajgnoew

--'I do not know'; cf. 'agnostic'

ajgro"

--'field'; cf. Lat. 'ager', D. 'Acker', Eng. 'acre'

ajhr

--'air'; cf. Eng. 'air'

ajqeo"

'without God'; cf. 'atheist'

aiJma

--'blood'; cf. 'haematology'

aijnigma

--'riddle'; cf. Eng. 'enigma'

aiJresi"

--'choice'; 'opinion', 'sect'; cf. Eng. 'heresy'

aiJretiko"

--'sectarian', 'opinionated'; cf. Eng. 'heretic'

aijwn

--'age'; cf. Eng. 'aeon'

ajkouw

--'I hear'; cf. 'acoustic'

ajkro"

--'apex'; cf. 'acrophobia'

ajlabastron

--'perfume flask'; cf. 'alabaster, 'albast' (kind of gypsum)

ajllhgorew

--'I speak an allegory'; (< allos 'other' and agorewo 'I speak')

aJma

--'at the same time, together'; related to Sanskr. sa(ma), Eng. 'same', D. 'sammt', Dutch. 'samen' (often a spiritus asper was a sigma at an earlier stage of the Greek language)

ajmhn

--'amen'; (< Hebr. for 'it is sure')

ajnaqema

--lit. 'a thing put on something', 'curse', 'accursed'; cf. 'anathema'

ajnalogia

--'proportion'; cf. 'analogy'

ajnastasi"

--'resurrection' (< root sta related to 'stand'); cf. girls' name'Anastasia'

ajnemo"

--'wind', (< ao, aèmi 'I breathe'); cf. Skr. 'atmen' and Dutch 'adem'

(related to Lat. anima, animus)

ajnqo"

--'flower'; cf. 'anthology'

ajnqrwpo"

--'human'; cf. 'anthropology', 'philanthropy', etc.

ajnti

--'against', 'anti'; cf. 'antichrist'

ajntiqesi"

--'opposition'; cf. 'antithesis'

ajntitupo"

--'antitype';

ajnticristo"

--'antichrist'

ajpo

--'from'; cf. Dutch 'af', German 'ab', Eng. 'of(f)'

ajpoqhkh

--'barn, storage'; cf. Eng. 'apothecary' (< Gr. apotithèmi 'I set aside')

ajpokaluyi"

--'revelation'; cf. Eng. 'apocalypse'

ajpologia

--'defense'; cf. Eng. 'apology'

ajpostolo"

--'one sent, emissary'; cf. 'apostle'

ajrgurion

--'silver (money)'; cf. Fr. 'argent'

ajriqmo"

--'number'; cf. Eng. 'arithmetic'

ajrcaggelo"

--'archangel'; cf. German 'Erz-'

ajrcitektwn

--'chief builder'; cf. 'architect' (< archo 'I begin'): [lit. 'chief carpenter']

ajsbesto"

--'unquenchable' (< alfa {-privans [lit. 'robbing alfa']} and sbennumi 'I extinguish') cf. 'asbestos'

ajsko"

--'sack';

ajsthr

--'star'

ajstron

--'constellation'; cf. 'astronomy', 'astrology'

aujtomato"

--'by itself'; cf. Eng. 'automatic'

aujto"

--'self'; cf. Eng. 'autistic'





23.3 Etymology



ballw

-- 'I throw'; cf. Eng. 'ballistic missile'

baptisth"

-- 'baptizer'; cf. 'Baptist'

barbaro"

-- 'stranger', 'foreigner'; cf. 'barbarian'

baro"

-- 'weight'; cf. 'barometer'

basiliko"

-- 'royal'; cf. 'basilisk'

biblo"

-- 'book', 'scroll'; cf. 'bible'

bio"

--'life', 'victuals'; cf. 'biology'

blasfhmew

--'I blaspheme' (< blapto 'I damage' and phèmè 'speech', 'rumor')

borra"

--'North'; cf. Lat. 'borealis'

botanh

--'plant', 'herb'; cf. 'botany'

boulomai

--'I want', 'I plan' (the ending looks like a passivum, but is not!); cf. 'aboulia' (morbid doubt)

gaggraina

--'gangrene' (< graino 'I gnaw')

gamo"

--'marriage' (probably from a root gam 'to bind'); cf. 'monogamy'

genealogia

--'genealogy' (< genea 'generation' and logia [cognate with logos 'word' and lego 'I say']

genesi"

--'origin', 'birth' (< geno or ginomai 'I become'); cf. 'genesis'

gewrgo"

--'farmer', 'husbandman' (< 'land' and ergo 'I work'); cf. Eng. 'George'

gh

--'land', 'earth'; cf. 'geology'

glwssa

--'tongue', 'language'; cf. 'glossolalia'

gnwsi"

--'knowledge'; cf. 'gnosis', 'gnostic'

gramma

--'letter' (< grafo 'I write'); cf. 'grammar'

grafw

--'I write'; cf. 'graphology'

gumnasia

--'(bodily) exercise' (< gymnazo 'I exercise' < gymnos (half) naked, for one would exercise (almost) naked); cf. 'gymnastics', 'gymnasium'

gunh

--'woman'; cf. 'gynaecology' (< gynaikos 2nd c. < gynè)

daimwn

--'evil spirit', 'daemon'

deka

--'ten'; cf. Eng. 'the decalogue' (the ten commandments)

dendron

--'tree'; cf. 'rhododendron', 'dendrite'

derma

--'skin'; cf. 'dermatology'

despoth"

--'master', 'lord'; cf. 'despot'

deutero"

--'second'; cf. 'Deuteronomy' ('second law' < nomos 'law')

dhmo"

--'population'; cf. 'democracy' (< kratos 'power')

dia

--'through'; cf. Dutch 'dia' (slide; because it lets the light through)

diabolo"

--'devil', 'false accuser', 'slanderer' (< diaballo 'I confuse'); cf. 'diabolical'

diagnwsi"

--'opinion', 'investigation', 'decision' (juridical term); cf. 'diagnosis'

diadhma

--'crown', 'diadem' (< dia and deo 'I bind'; originally a bluewhite ribbon that Persian kings would bind on their turban)

diakonia

--'service', 'ministering'; cf. 'diaconal'

diakono"

--'servant', 'minister'; cf. 'deacon'

dialekto"

--'language (belonging to a population)' (<lego 'I say/speak'); cf. 'dialect'

diaspora

--'dispersion' (< speiro 'I strew/sow'); cf. 'diaspora' (viz. < the ten tribes; also of the twelve, or only of Judah and Benjamin)

dogma

--'point of teaching', 'decree', 'ordinance'; cf. 'dogma'

doxa

--'honor', 'glory'; cf. 'doxology'

drakwn

--'dragon'

dunami"

--'might', 'ability'; cf. 'dynamite'

dunasth"

--'high civil servant'; cf. 'dynasty'

duo

--'two'; cf. 'duo'

dusenteria

--'dysentery' (< dus 'mis-, un-, dis' and enteron 'intestine')







24.3 Etymology



ejgw

--'I'; cf. Lat. 'ego'

ejqniko"

--'heathen'; cf. Eng. 'ethnical'

ejqno"

--'race, nation, people, heathen'; cf. 'ethnology'

ejqo"

--'custom'; cf. Eng. 'ethos'

eijdwlon

--'image, idol, false god';

eijkw

--'yield'

eijkwn

--'image, figure,'; cf. 'icon'

eijrhnh

--'peace'; cf. girl's name 'Irene'

eiJ", mia, eJn

--'one'; cf. various languages: 'one', 'ein', 'un', 'een', 'uno', etc.

ejk

--'out'; vgl. Lat. 'ex'

ejkklhsia

--'assembly, church'; cf. Fr. 'église', Sp. name 'Iglesias'; < ekkaleo 'I call out'

ejkstasi"

--'extacy, wonderment'; cf. 'xtc'

eJlko"

--'boil'; cf. Lat. 'ulcus', Eng. 'ulcer'

ejmo"

--'mine'; cf. Lat. 'meus', etc.

ejmporion

--'market'; cf. Lat. 'emporium', Eng. 'empire'

ejn

--'in'; cf. Lat. 'in', German 'im', etc.

ejnergeia

--'operation, activity, operation power'; cf. 'energy'

ejx

--'six'; cf. Lat. 'sex', (the spiritus asper often was a sigma),

Eng. 'six', German 'sechs', etc.

ejpiskopo"

--'overseer, ' < episkopeo 'I watch attentively'; cf. Lat. 'episcopus', Eng.'bishop'

ejpistolh

--'letter'; cf. Eng. 'epistle', D. 'epistel'

ejpifaneia

--'appearing'; cf. Eng. 'epiphany'

ejpo"

--'word'; cf. 'epos'

ejsqh"

--'clothing, vestment'; cf. Lat. 'vestis'; Eng. D. 'vest'

ejsqiw

--'I eat'; cf. Lat. 'edere', Eng. 'to eat', German 'essen'

eJspera

--'evening'; cf. Lat. 'vesper'

ejscato"

--'last'; cf. 'eschatology'

ejswtero"

--'inner'; cf. 'esoteric'

eujaggelion

--'good message, gospel'; German 'Evangelium'

eujaggelisth"

--'somebody that announces a good message, evangelist'

eujgenh"

--'noble', (lit. 'well born'); cf. boy's name 'Eugene'

eujcaristia

--'thankfulness'; cf. Eng. 'eucharist', D. 'eucharistie'





25.3 Etymology



zhlo"

-- 'zeal'; cf. 'jealousy'

zhlwth"

-

--'zealot';

zugo"

-- 'yoke'; related to Lat. 'iugium', Fr. 'joug', G 'Joch'

zwon

-- 'living being', 'animal'; cf. 'zoology'

hJgemonia

-- 'leadership'; cf. Eng. 'hegemony'

hJdonh

-- 'pleasure'; cf. 'hedonism'

hJlio"

-- 'sun(light)'; cf. 'helium'

hjco"

-- 'sound', 'report', 'rumor'; cf. 'echo'

qea

--'goddess', cf. girls' name Thea

qeatron

--'public display', 'show', 'auditorium'; cf. 'theatre'

qerapeia

--'healing', 'service', '(the community of) servants'; cf. 'therapy'

qermh

--'heat'; cf. 'thermic'

qewria

--'sight', 'public display'; cf. 'theory'

qhsauro"

--'treasure (chest)', 'store'; cf. Lat. Eng. 'thesaurus'

qrauw

--'to break', 'to wound'; cf. 'trauma'

qrhno"

--'dirge', 'mourning (song)'; cf. Eng. 'tears', G. 'Thräne', 'dröhnen', Ned. 'tranen', 'dreunen'

qrono"

--'throne', 'seat'

qura

--'door'; cf. G. 'Thür'

qwrax

--'thorax'

ijaspi"

--'jasper'

ijatro"

--'physician', '(lit.) healer'; cf. 'psychiatrist (lit. healer of soul)'

ijdio"

--'own'; cf. 'idiom'

ijdiwth"

--'simple citizen', 'unschooled citizen'; cf. 'idiot'

iJero"

--'sacred'; cf. 'hieroglyph'

iJppo"

--'horse'; cf. 'hippodrome', etc.

ijri"

--'rainbow'; cf. girls' name Iris

ijcqu"

--'fish'; cf. Christian 'ichthus' symbol of the acronym *Ihsou" Cristo" Qeou &Uio" Swthr





26.3 Etymology



kaqaro"

--'pure'; cf. girls' name 'Catharina', 'catharsis'

kaqhghth"

--'master', 'teacher'; cf. 'cathegist', etc.

Kaisar

--'Caesar'

kako"

--'bad'; cf. 'cacophony'

kalo"

--'beautiful'; cf. 'calligraphy'

kamhlo"

--'camel'

kanwn

--'rule', 'standard'; cf. 'canon'

kardia

--'heart'; cf. 'cardiology'

kataluw

--'I loosen'; cf. 'catalyst'

katastrofh

--'destruction'; cf. Eng. 'catastrophe'

keno"

--'empty'; cf. 'cenotaph'

kenturiwn

--'centurion'; cf. Lat. 'centurio'

keramiko"

--'earthen'; cf. 'ceramic'

kefalh

--'head'; cf. 'encephalogram'

khnso"

--'tax'; cf. Lat. 'census'

kiqara

--'harp', 'z(c)ither'; cf. 'gitar'

kinamwmon

--'cinnamon'

kinew

--'I move', 'I am moved'; cf. 'kinetic'

klei"

--'key'; cf. Fr. 'clef'

kleptw

--'I steal'; cf. 'kleptomania'

kodranth"

--'1/4 ass'; cf. Lat. 'quadrans', Eng. 'quarter'

koith

--'marriage bed', 'conjugal love'; cf. 'coitus'

kollaw

--'I glue', 'I fix'; cf. 'collage'

kolpo"

--'bosom', 'bay'; cf. Eng. 'bathycolpian'

komh

--'(long) hair'; cf. 'comet' (because of the long tail)

kosmo"

--'world', 'universe', 'adornment'; cf. 'cosmos'

koustwdia

--'(soldiers of the) guard'; cf. Lat. 'custodia'

krabbato"

--'(field)bed'; cf. Lat. 'grabatus'

krazw

--'I shout, I cry'; cf. Eng. 'to cry'

kranion

--'scull'; cf. Eng. 'cranium', D. 'kraan', 'kranig'

krea"

--'flesh'; cf. Lat. 'caro', 'cruor'

krima

--'judgment', 'condemnation', 'legal case'; cf. Fr. 'crime', Eng. 'crime'

krisi"

--'judgment', 'punishment'; cf. 'crisis'

krithrion

--'legal case', 'court of law'; cf. Eng. 'criterion'

kritiko"

--'apt to judge'; cf. Eng. 'critical'

krupto"

--'secret'; cf. 'cryptic'

krustallo"

--'crystal'

kubernhsi"

--'government', 'governing'; cf. Eng. 'government'

kuklw/

--'in a circle', 'roundabout'; cf. Eng. 'cycle'

kumbalon

--'cymbal'

kuminon

--'cumin', G. 'Kümmel'

kwmh

--'village' (actually the place where the field workers lie and sleep) [cognate of Eng. 'home']





27.3 Etymology



lalew

--'I speak'; cf. 'glossolalia'

lampa"

--'lamp'

larugx

--'throat'; cf. Eng. 'larynx'

legewn,

legiwn

--'legion'; cf. Lat. 'legio'

lention

--'linen apron'; cf. Lat. 'linteum'

lepra

--'leprosy'; cf. D. 'lepra'

leuko"

--'lightening', 'white'; cf. Lat. 'luceo', G. 'leuchten'

libertino"

--'(son of a) liberated [Jewish] slave';cf. Lat. 'libertinus', Eng. 'libertine'

liqo"

--'stone'; cf. 'lithography'

litra

--'pound'; cf. 'litre'

logiko"

--'reasonable'; cf. 'logic'

mageia,

magia

--'magic' (pl.: magic powers)

mago"

--'wise man'

maqhteuw

--'I am (make) a disciple/student', 'I teach'; cf. Eng. 'mathematics'

mammh

--'grandmother'; cf. 'mama'

mamwna"

--'Mammon' [Hebr. lit. 'what is trusted in']

mania

--'mania'

manna

--'manna'

maranaqa

--'maranatha' [Aramaic for 'our Lord is coming']

martu"

--'witness'; cf. Eng. 'martyr' (witness for Christ)

megaleio"

--'great', 'magnificent'; cf. 'megalomania'

mega"

--'great'; cf. Lat. 'magnus', 'magister', Eng. 'most', Goth. 'maist', D. 'meest', etc.

meqodeia

--'deceit'; cf. 'method'

mela"

--'black'; cf. 'melancholy' (lit. 'black gall')

melissio"

--'of (made by) bees', 'bee-' (with kèrion 'honeycomb'); cf. girls'name 'Melissa'

metamorfow

--'I change in form'; cf. 'metamorphosis'

metrew

--'I measure'; cf. 'metre'

mhn

--'new moon', 'month'

miasma

--'contamination'; cf. Eng. 'miasma'

migma

--'mixture'

mignumi

--'I mix'

milion

--'mile' (one thousand steps)

mimeomai

--'I imitate'; cf. 'mime'

misew

--'I hate'; cf. Eng. 'misogynist'

modio"

--'(corn) measure'

muqo"

--'myth'

mulo"

--'mill(stone)'

mulwn

--'mill(house)'

muria"

--'ten thousand', 'very large multitude', 'great number'; cf. Eng. 'myriad(s)'

musthrion

--'secret', 'mystery'





28.8 Etymology



nardo"

--'nard(plant)'(from East India); Sanskrit, Hebr. 'nerd', Eng. 'nard'

nekro"

--'dead'; cf. 'necrophilia'

nun

--'now'; cf. G. 'nun' Lat. 'nunc'

xeno"

--'strange(r)', 'host'; cf. 'xenophobia'

oJdo"

--'way', 'road'; cf. 'cathode'

oijkonomia

--'administration' (lit. 'tending of the house[hold]'); cf. 'economy'

oijkonomo"

--'administrator'; cf. 'economist'

ojligo"

--'little', 'small'; cf. 'oligarch'

oJlo"

--'whole' 'complete'; cf. 'hologram'

ojnoma

--'name'; cf. L. 'nomen', G. 'Name'

ojregomai

--'I stretch myself towards', 'I reach to', 'I desire'; cf. Lat. 'rego', Eng. 'to reach', G. 'recken', 'strecken', 'reichen'

ojrfano"

--'orphan', (particularly) 'father(less)

ojfqalmo"

--'eye'; cf. 'ophthalmology'

paqo"

--'(sinful) desire', 'passion'; cf. 'pathos'

paidagwgo"

--'teacher'; cf. 'pedagogue'

palaio"

--'old'; cf. 'palaeoclimatology', etc.

panoplia

--'full armor'; cf. Eng. 'panoply'

paradeiso"

--'paradise' (that is, the third heaven; not the Garden of Eden)

paradoxo"

--'incredible', 'wonderful'; cf. 'paradox'

pathr

--'father'; cf. Lat. 'pater', G. 'Vater', Fr. 'père', etc.

penthkosth

--'Pentecost'

planaw

--'I deceive', 'I mislead'; cf. 'planet' (roaming star)

plasma

--'lump of clay for the potter'; cf. 'plasma'

poihma

--'work', 'what has been made'; cf. Eng. 'poem'

polemo"

--'war', 'dispute'; cf. 'polemic'

porno-nh

--'(male)prostitute', 'prostituée'; cf. 'porno'

pragma

--'thing', 'case', 'deed', 'what has been/is being done'; cf. 'pragmatic'

profhth"

--'prophet' [< profèmi 'to announce']

profhtiko"

--'prophetic'

profhti"

--'prophetess'

pur

--'fire'[probably from Sanscrit pu 'to purify']; cf. Eng. 'fire', 'pyromania', G. 'Feuer', Dutch 'puur'

purgo"

--'tour', 'bulwark'; cf. D. 'burcht', G. 'Burg'





29.4 Etymology



rJabbi

--'rabbi', 'teacher'; < Heb. 'rav', i.e. 'great', 'much'

rJedh

--'wagon'; cf. Eng. 'to ride', D. 'rijden'

rJiza

--'root'; cf. Lat. 'radix', Eng. 'root', G. 'Reis'

sabbaton

--'Sabbath', 'saturday'; < Heb. 'shabbaat', i.e. 'resting day'

sakko"

--'sack'; cf. Heb. 'sak', Lat. 'saccus', Eng. 'sack'

sindwn

--'linen (cloth)'; cf. Heb. 'sadien', Skr. 'sindhu', Egypt. 'schenti', D. 'satijn'

smurna

--'myrrh'; cf. Heb. 'moor', Eng. 'myrrh'

spoggo"

--'sponge'

stadion

--'racing course', 'arena', 'stadium (185 m.)'

stegw

--'I cover', 'I bear (patiently)'; cf. Lat. 'tego', Eng. 'to deck', 'to thatch', D. 'dekken'

stellw

--'I set', 'I equip'; cf. G. 'stellen', Eng. 'stall', D. 'stellen'

stenazw

--'I groan'; cf. G. 'stöhnen', Eng. 'stentorian', D. 'steunen'

stigma

--'mark (sign)'; cf. Lat. 'stimulus', Eng. 'to stick', 'to sting', G. 'stechen', D. 'steken'

stomaco"

--'stomach', 'belly'; cf. Eng. 'stomach'

sumpaqew

--'sympathy', '(lit. 'I suffer together with')

sumposion

--'(guests of a) drinking party', 'group', 'row'; cf. 'symposium'

sumfwnia

--'music', [lit. 'sounding together']; cf. 'symphony'

sunagwgh

--'(meeting in a) synagogue'

sunedrion

--'Jewish counsel', 'Sanhedrin'; cf. Eng. 'Sanhedrin'

scisma

--'schism'

scolh

--'school'



30.4 Etymology



tabernai

--'halting place'; cf. Lat. 'taberna', Eng. 'tavern', D. 'taverne'

takto"

--'arranged', 'ordered'; cf. Eng. 'tactic(al)', D. 'taktisch'

talanton

--'talent(weight/amount)[about. USD 310 (Syrian talent)]'

taxi"

--'order'; cf. 'taxi'

tauro"

--'steer', 'bull'; cf. Lat. 'taurus', Sp. 'toro'

tecnh

--'craft(smanship)', 'occupation'; cf. 'technique'

tecnith"

--'craftsman', 'artificer'; cf. 'technician'

titlo"

--'(super)(in)scription', 'title'; cf. Lat. 'titulus', Eng. 'title', D. 'titel'

topo"

--'place', 'occasion'; cf. Eng. 'topic(al)'

tremw

--'I tremble', 'I fear', 'I am afraid'; cf. Lat. 'tremor'

trito"

--'third'; cf. Eng. 'third', G. 'dritte'

tupo"

--'sign', 'mark', 'impression', 'figure', 'image', 'model'; cf. Eng. 'type'

tupikw"

--'by way of example'; cf. Eng. 'typical', D. 'typisch'

uJakinqino"

--'(very) dark red'; cf. Eng. 'hyacinth'

uJbri"

--'pride', 'criminality', 'crime', 'insult'; cf. Eng. 'hubris'

uJgiainw

--'I am healthy'; cf. Eng. D. 'hygiene'

uJdrwpiko"

--'dropsical'; cf. Eng. 'dropsical'

uJdwr

--'water'; cf. Eng. 'hydraulic'

uJmno"

--'song'; cf. Eng. 'hymn'

uJperbolh

--'excellence', 'pre-eminence', 'superiority'; cf. Eng. 'hyperbole', D. 'hyperbool'

uJpno"

--'sleep'; cf. Eng. 'hypnotic', D. 'hypnotisch'





31.4 Etymology



fantasia

--'pomp', 'circumstance'; cf. 'phantasy'

Faraw

--'Pharaoh'; cf. Eng. 'Pharaoh'

Farisaio"

--'Pharisee' [lit. 'somebody that separates himself' < Heb. 'farash' 'he separates himself']

farmakeia

--'magic [probably under influence of drugs]'; cf. Eng. 'pharmacy', D. 'farmaceutisch'

faulo"

--'worthless', 'foul'; cf. G. 'faul', 'flau', D. 'vuil', 'flauw'

fhmh

--'fame', 'reputation'; cf. Eng. 'fame'

fialh

--'[shallow] dish', 'platter'; cf. Eng. 'vial'

filew

--'I love [as friend]'; cf. 'bibliophile', etc.

filosofia

--'philosophy' [lit. 'love of wisdom']

fobo"

--'fear', 'angst'; cf. Eng. 'phobia', D. 'fobie'

fragellion

--'whip'; cf. Eng. 'flagellate'

frhn

--'mind', 'thought' [originally 'lungs', 'desires']; cf. 'phrenology'

fugh

--'flight', 'escape'; cf. 'fuga'

fulakthrion

--'prayer chain' [originally 'watch']; cf. Eng. 'phylactery'

fusiko"

--'natural', 'guided by the [instincts] of nature'; cf. Eng. 'physical'

fwnh

--'sound', 'voice'; cf. 'telephone' ['far voice']

fw"

-- 'light'; cf. E. 'photo [from genitive fotos]

fwsforo"

--'morning star'; cf. 'phosphor'





32.4 Etymology



calkhdwn

--'chalcedon'

carakthr

--'exact image'; cf. Eng. 'character', D. 'karakter'

carth"

--'paper'; cf. Eng. D. 'charta'

cilia"

--'(the number) thousand'; cf. 'chiliast'

colh

--'gall';

coro"

--'(group of) dancers', 'dance'; cf. Eng. 'choir', D. 'koor'

cristo"

--'Christ' [lit. 'anointed' < chrio 'I anoint']

yalmo"

--'psalm'

yeudo

--

--'false', 'lying', e.g. yeudodidaskalo 'false, misleading teacher'

yuch

-- 'soul', cf. 'psychology'

w/jdh

-- 'song' (in honor of God); cf. Eng. D. 'ode'

wj/on

--'egg'; cf. Lat. 'ovum'

wJra

--'hour', 'short time'; cf. Lat. 'hora', Eng. 'hour', Fr. 'heure'

wJsanna

--'hosanna' [Hebr. lit.'save then', others 'save us'], 'be merciful', 'be favorable' [for the sake of David's Son]





33.4 Etymology

After we have given most English words that are cognate to biblical Greek, we now would like to treat of some words that are interconnected in Greek.



pote;

--when?

tote

-

then

oJte -when

pote

-

some time

oJpote -when(ever)



pw";

-

how?

ouJtw" -

so, thus,

wJ"

as

pw"

--somehow, perhaps

oJpw"

how(ever), as



pou;

where?

ouJ

--where



poso";

-how great? how many? toso" -so great oJso" -(so great, so many) as; how (great), how (many)

poio"

-what (kind of? toio" -such oiJo" -(such) as



Nomina Agentis (acting person):

-th" oJ

baptizw baptisth" Baptist

-o" oJ

legw spermologo" prattler, vain talker

-thr (-twr oJ

ejrew rJhtwr orator

-eu" oJ

basileuw basileu" king



Nomina Actionis (act or state of being):

-ti" (-si" hJ

tassw taxi" order

-sih (-sia hJ

ejkkalew ejkklhsia assembly



Nomina Rei Actae (result of an act):

-ma to

prassw pragma thing, case

-o" to

eijpon ejpo" word



Nomina Loci (place of an act):

-thrion to

desmo" desmwthrion prison



Nomina Qualitatis (characteristic or state of being):

-sunh hJ

dikaio" dikaiosunh righteousness

-ia hJ

ajlhqh" ajlhqeia truth

-th,-thto"

hJ crhsto" crhstoth" goodness, integrity



Diminutiva (diminutives):

-isko", (-h)

pai" paidiskh maid, lassie

neania"

neanisko" youth, young man

-ion to

pai" paidion lad, young boy



Gentilis ('patronymic'):

-th" oJ

jIsrahl jIsrahlith" Israelite





34.4. Etymology

After having given the various endings of substantives, we now do the same for the adjectives.

Adiectiva:



Possible, apt:

-o"

logo" ajlogo" unreasonable

-ro"

lampw lampro" shining

-h", -eo"

lhqw ajlhqh" true, truthful

-mwn, mono"

ejpistamai ejpisthmwn knowledgeable



Prepared with:

-to"

peiqw pisto" faithful



Full of:

-io"

timh timio" honored, costly



Belonging to:

-iko"

basileu" basiliko" royal



Derived from, belonging to:

-io"

Korinqo" Korinqio" Corinthian

-ino"

jAlexandria jAlexandrino" Alexandrian

-iko"

jIouda jIoudai>ko" Jewish



Materials:

-eo", -eio"

cruso" cruse(i)o" gold

-ino"

mulo" mulino" (made) of a millstone





35.3 Etymology

We now give you a few Greek words and show you how they are related to each other.



nhpio"

--young, childlike < nh [un-, -less] + ejpo" [word], cf. eijpon [I/they said]

hjpio"

- friendly, soft [with words]

nhsteuw

I am fasting < nh + ejsqiw [I eat]

proskunew

I worship, venerate, hail [this hails back to an ancient Eastern custom of prostrating oneself in front of a ruler to kiss his hand, knee or the hem of his garment] < pro + kunew [I kiss]

iJlew"

merciful, friendly, favorable; cf. the following

ejleo"

mercy [cognate with: ejleew, ejleeino", etc.]

ejmew

--I vomit; cf. Sanscrit 'vam', Lat. 'vomere', Eng. 'vomit' [remember that from India to England all languages (except Basque) belong to the Indo-Germanic or Indo-European language family]

eiJ"

--one; cf. with eJnoth" [union, unison]

ojclo"

--(restlessness, trouble[some burden])(belonging to) a great crowd; cf. ejnoclew [I trouble, I bother]

eijdw, ijdw, oijda

--cognate with Dutch. 'weten', 'vinden' and Eng. 'wisdom', 'find', cf. Eng. 'to wit'; oijda [I know], perfect tense of 'to see'; so 'I have seen=I know'





36.4 Etymology

One of the characteristics of the wisdom from above (ejpieikeia= mildness, gentleness): is derived from the word eijko" (which in turn derives from 'ejoika'= 'I seem like', or 'I look like' and hence 'seeming'); which means 'probable' (cf. Eng. 'likely'), 'natural', 'seeming, decent' and 'reasonable'. Therefore it is also described as 'mild or sweet reasonableness! These words are also philologically cognate with the Latin 'aequare', from which comes our 'equal.'

With the help of various prepositions often new nouns and verbs were constructed; e.g. grafw -ejggrafw, cf. Eng. 'to engrave'. Related to a verb are often various substantives; e.g. ejntellw-ejntalma-ejntolh. The so-called alpha privans (lit. 'robbing a') has the meaning of our un-; e.g. meleomai -ajmeleomai. Du" has the meaning of and is cognate with our dis-.

A word like suneidhsi" 'conscience' was probably translated by a philosopher into Latin with 'conscientia' and literally means 'a knowing with (oneself)'. Prepositions, just as in for example German and Dutch, are sometimes used to lend a negative sense to a word; e.g. ajra 'prayer,' 'wish' and katara < kata + ajra and so becomes 'curse,' 'malediction' (German: 'Verwünschung', Verfluchung').

With this we have arrived at the end of our subject of etymology for this course.

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